How to Mix Colors for Portraits
I'm learning how to paint realistic portraits with acrylic paint and the Zorn palette: Carbon Black, Cadmium Red Light, Yellow Ochre and Titanium White. The Zorn palette is a good one for beginners to use because it is limited to just 4 paint tubes. You mix variations to create flesh tones, including shadows and highlights. In this post, I'm sharing tips on how to mix paint colors and keep your acrylic paints fresh.
Tip #1: Use a Wet Palette to Store Paint
When I first started painting, I spread out the paint into little piles my palette and mix up the paint colors I needed as I worked on each section. The problem I ran into is that I'm still learning how to mix paint, so I spent a lot of time figuring out how to get the color I wanted. My paint would quickly dry up and become tacky, more quickly than usual because I live here in the dry mountain climate of Colorado.
I found out that other acrylic painters use a wet palette to keep their acrylic paints wet while they work. The most convenient (and most expensive solution) is the Masterson Sta-wet Palette - check out YouTube for tutorials on how to use it. The good thing about this palette is that it comes with an airtight lid that helps keep your paint wet for days, even weeks. Instead of mixing new paint for each paint session, I can pull from this reserve of paint that is closer to the colors and values that I need.
Two notes of caution: 1) The lid can warp so make sure you store the lid with your box and keep it out of the direct sun and 2) the sponge can get moldy. Clean the sponge monthly with add a capful of bleach and dish soap. Or you can use wet Scott shop towels instead of the sponge and change them out.
Tip #2: Use a Disposable Palette to Mix Color
Another thing I've noticed when I mix paint is that I rapidly run out of space to mix paint in the Sta-Wet Palette. Keeping my paint piles clean and separated helps prevent the colors from getting muddy. And trying to mix paint in the box seems harder to me because the edge of the box keeps getting in the way.
I finally started using a separate disposable palette pad just for mixing up paint. I used one page to mix a color string, such as all the variations of black values that I might want for my painting. This is what my mix for a warm black (black with a little red) and a cool red (red with a little black) looks like in my color string.
Mixing on the disposable palette makes it easier to mix ALOT more paint. I mix up large piles and then I transfer them to my Sta-Wet palette for storage. Here's what my Sta-Wet palette looks like right now.
I ran out of the regular palette paper, so I'm experimenting with using Reynolds Kitchen Parchment Paper. As you can see in my photo, the Parchment Paper tends to wrinkle. I have also tried using tracing paper, but the tracing paper dissolves so you have to change the paper often.
Tip #3: Keep your paint puddles clean.
Since adding very little black or red to a paint mix can drastically change the value and hue, I have learned to wipe my palette knife with a paper towel whenever I pick up a new paint color.
First of all, a large, metal palette knife makes it easier to scoop and mix large piles of paint. Plastic knives don't rust, but it's harder to pick up all the paint from a surface. I also prefer an offset palette knife, one with a bend in it, so it's easier to scooper and scrape the paint. I will also use a second palette knife to scrape off all the paint on the first one.
Wiping paint with a paper towel while you mix seems like common sense, but it's something I have to mindfully practice. It's too easy to just scoop up a little new paint color when you're in the middle of mixing. I like to keep a paper towel flat on the table next to me and wiping my knife on the table instead of holding it in my hand so I don't get so much paint on my hands. I feel like you use up more of the towel this way.
Tip #4: Mix Your Colors in the Same Lighting as Your Painting
One of the early mistakes I made when I worked on my initial mixes was mixing my colors on beside my easel. The problem is that my side table was under my overhead incandescent light while my painting was under a daylight bulb. The result is that my paint mixes ended up too dark.
Now I mix paint directly under the same lighting as my painting. I'm currently using an LED daylight floodlight bulb, 5000k and a CRI of 95 in my basic clamp lamp from Home Depot.
I'm also doing some research into vertical palettes - a palette sitting next to your painting on the easel. The paint from my Sta-Wet palette acts as my "tube colors" and I added extra puddles of the 4 main colors to adjust colors.
Tip #5: Make a Color Wheel or a Color Chart
Making a color wheel can be tedious, but one of my teachers said that most painters waste money trying to mix up paint colors as they work. Making a color wheel before you start painting makes it easy to learn what colors you can mix and exactly how to mix them. Here's my color wheel for the Zorn palette:
I used the rings of my color wheel to learn how to mix complements of each color and their related tones. In the Zorn palette, Carbon Black acts as a Blue. Doing this chart, I noticed that black and red are very strong tinting colors - a little goes a long way. Compared to black and read, I used large amount, maybe 10 times as much of Titanium White and Yellow Ochre to mix the flesh tones in the chart.
Next Up: My Easel Setup
I hope these tips helps other beginning painters mix up paints with their paintings! Next up, I'm looking at how to set up my painting area: lighting fixtures, photo references, and my little painting table. Subscribe now and stay tuned.